Description Coastal wetlands provide a natural defence against coastal flooding and storm surges primarily by dissipating wave energy. Salt marshes (i.e. coastal wetlands flooded and drained by tides) are the most effective natural coastal
Description Dune erosion results from wind and wave action. It is a natural phenomenon that can be worsened by human activities such as dune levelling to build urban settlements, parking-lots, promenades, etc. This contributes
Description Disasters, whether large or small in scale, cause great destruction, as well as human and economic losses, and with that hinder the progress towards sustainable development. According to data of the UN Disaster
DESCRIPTION Green spaces in cities provide cooling through shading and enhanced evapotranspiration, thus reducing the urban heat island (UHI) effect that occurs due to the modification of land surfaces and generation of waste heat.
DESCRIPTION IUCN, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, defines Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) as areas of the ocean set aside for long-term conservation of nature, with associated ecosystem services and cultural values. The
DESCRIPTION Rivers and their floodplains are subject to many human uses that can alter their hydrology, morphology and connectivity. Many European rivers and floodplains have been significantly modified over the past decades, for example
DESCRIPTION Agriculture in the Mediterranean and Adriatic regions is threatened by climate change, especially in relation to the increase in the occurrence of droughts and heatwaves. Destructive rains, violent hailstorms and devastating winds are