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Adaptation Options


Managed retreat

Description The rising seas are nowadays our reality. As sea levels rise, lower coasts are at risk of inundation, coastal storms occur more often, and coastal erosion and seawater intrusion are on the rise.


Adaptation through integrated fire management

Description Climate change projections (EEA-Indicator Assessment on Forest Fire, 2019) suggest substantial warming and increases in the number of heat waves and droughts across most of the Mediterranean area and more generally in southern


Water uses to cope with heat waves in cities

Description The number of extreme heat events has substantially increased across Europe in recent decades, and the length, frequency and intensity of heat waves is projected to increase in the future. They are associated


Protection and restoration of Posidonia oceanica meadows

Description In the case of beach/coastal erosion, an important „defence role“ is played by seagrasses. Seagrasses entrap the sediment, stabilize the seafloor and thus, prevent erosion of the coasts. When seagrasses trap the sediment,


Climate change adaptation through afforestation

Description Mediterranean forests are one of the world’s biodiversity “hotspots” that carry multiple values of general benefit (FAO, 2011). Nowadays, they are affected by climate change and Mediterranean forest ecosystems are projected to be


Climate smart pest management

Description Mass tree mortality caused by a sudden increase in pest population can have extremely detrimental effects on forest ecosystems, which is reflected in biodiversity loss, lost carbon sinks and severe disturbances in ecosystem


Measures to reduce urban runoff

Description Extreme precipitation events are the climatic drivers of urban runoff and urban flooding, and are expected to increase in the future due to climate change. Urban runoff does not only depend on the


Climate Proofing of building codes

Description The building sector is challenged by a number of climate change impacts, including increase in temperature, higher frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events and sea level rise. Rising temperatures and extended heatwave