Societal options

Managed retreat

Description The rising seas are nowadays our reality. As sea levels rise, lower coasts are at risk of inundation, coastal storms occur more often, and coastal erosion and seawater intrusion are on the rise.

Green options

Protection, restoration and management of coastal wetlands

Description Coastal wetlands provide a natural defence against coastal flooding and storm surges primarily by dissipating wave energy. Salt marshes (i.e. coastal wetlands flooded and drained by tides) are the most effective natural coastal

Green options

Rehabilitation and restoration of rivers

DESCRIPTION Rivers and their floodplains are subject to many human uses that can alter their hydrology, morphology and connectivity. Many European rivers and floodplains have been significantly modified over the past decades, for example